Glossary S

 

Glossary of Terms

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R [S] T U V W X Y Z


S

SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

A protein that binds or attaches to a number of circulating hormones (e.g., testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol). Once the hormones are bound to it, SHBG regulates their presence in the bloodstream and hence their activity. A decrease in SHBG indicates a greater number of hormones are circulating in the bloodstream, thereby causing clinical symptoms of PCOS such as hair growth and male pattern baldness.

Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens)

A small palm native to the southeastern Unites States recognized most for treating Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy in men. Recent research has shown saw palmetto can reverse hirsutism in females. The exact mechanism of action is unknown, although it might inhibit the enzyme 5-alpha reductase, which converts testosterone to its more potent relative, dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Scan

The data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of the body using a sensing device.

Sclerocystic Ovaries

Another name for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), along with Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD), Stein-Leventhal Syndrome, and Chronic Anovulatory Syndrome. It is the most common female endocrine (hormonal) disorder and is characterized by multiple abnormal ovarian cysts. The classic triad of obesity, hirsutism, and irregular anovulatory cycles occurs in only one-third of women with PCOS.

Serophene (Clomiphene)

The brand name, along with Clomid, for a medication used to treat infertility. It initiates a cascade of endocrine events that stimulates ovarian follicles and culminates in ovulation. Common side effects include enlarged ovaries, hot flashes, abdominal discomfort, and visual disturbances.

Serum

The clear liquid that can be separated from clotted blood. Serum differs from plasma, which is the liquid portion of normal unclotted blood containing the red and white cells and platelets. The clot is what makes the difference between serum and plasma.

Side effects

Problems that occur when treatment goes beyond the desired effect.

Sjogren’s syndrome

An autoimmune disease where a body’s immune system attacks the glands that secrete bodily fluids, such as the sweat, tear, and saliva glands.

Sleep apnea

The stopping of breathing one or more times during sleep. Risk factors include certain physical characteristics (such as a large neck), smoking, alcohol use, obesity, and diabetes, the last two of which can account for the connection to PCOS. Sleep apnea is often the cause of snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, morning headaches, and irritability.

Spironolactone (Aldactone)

See Aldactone.

Stage

As regards to cancer, the extent to which the disease has spread from the original site to other parts of the body.

Statins

A type of drug that lowers LDL (“bad” cholesterol) by inhibiting HMG CoA reductase, the enzyme that manages the rate of cholesterol production. Statin drugs also enhance the capability of the liver to remove LDL-cholesterol already in the blood.

Stein-Leventhal Syndrome

Another name for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), in addition to Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD), Sclerocystic Ovaries, and Chronic Anovulatory Syndrome. It is the most common female endocrine (hormonal) disorder and is characterized by multiple abnormal ovarian cysts. The classic triad of obesity, hirsutism, and irregular anovulatory cycles occurs in only one-third of women with PCOS.

Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica)

A perennial herb with many uses. The root of Urtica dioica can be used medicinally to increase SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin), which serves to decrease the activity of excess hormones in conditions like PCOS and BPH.

Stromal tissue

Connective tissue cells of an organ that comprise its supportive framework.

Surgery

The branch of medicine concerned with diseases and conditions that require or are amenable by operative procedures. It is the work perfomed by a surgeon.

Syndrome

A set of signs and symptoms that tend to occur together and reflect the presence of a particular disease or an increased chance of developing a particular disease.

Syndrome X

Also known as Metabolic Syndrome, a group of risk factors that substantially increase the chances of developing coronary artery disease and Type 2 Diabetes. Characterized by central or abdominal obesity, high blood lipids (mainly high triglycerides and low HDL), hypertension, and fasting blood glucose >110 mg/dL.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R [S] T U V W X Y Z

 

 

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